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Standard Test Method for Condition Monitoring of Oxidation in In-Service Petroleum and Hydrocarbon Based Lubricants by Trend Analysis Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometry
NORMA vydaná dňa 1.12.2021
Označenie normy: ASTM D7414-21
Dátum vydania normy: 1.12.2021
Kód tovaru: NS-1047541
Počet strán: 5
Približná hmotnosť: 15 g (0.03 libier)
Krajina: Americká technická norma
Kategória: Technické normy ASTM
condition monitoring, differential trend analysis, direct trend analysis, Fourier transform infrared, FT-IR, hydrocarbon based lubricants, in-service petroleum lubricants, infrared, IR, lubricants, oils, oxidation,, ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)
|Significance and Use|
5.1A large number of compounds, such as aldehydes, ketones, esters, and carboxylic acids, are produced when oils react with atmospheric oxygen. Oxidation is measured using a common FT-IR spectral feature between 1800cm1 and 1670 cm1 caused by the absorption of the carbonyl group present in most oxidation compounds. These oxidation products may lead to increased viscosity (causing oil thickening problems), acidity (causing acidic corrosion), and formation of sludge and varnish (leading to filter plugging, fouling of critical oil clearances and valve friction). Monitoring of oxidation products is therefore an important parameter in determining overall machinery health and should be considered in conjunction with data from other tests such as atomic emission (AE) and atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy for wear metal analysis (Test Method ) and physical property tests (Test Methods ), base reserve (Test Method and ), acid number tests (Test Methods and ) and other FT-IR oil analysis methods for nitration (Test Method ), sulfate by-products (Test Method ), and additive depletion (Test Method ), which also assess elements of the oils condition, see Refs 1.1This test method covers monitoring oxidation in in-service petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants such as in diesel crankcase, motor, hydraulic, gear and compressor oils, as well as other types of lubricants that are prone to oxidation.
1.2This test method uses Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry for monitoring build-up of oxidation products in in-service petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants as a result of normal machinery operation. Petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants react with oxygen in the air to form a number of different chemical species, including aldehydes, ketones, esters, and carboxylic acids. This test method is designed as a fast, simple spectroscopic check for monitoring of oxidation in in-service petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants with the objective of helping diagnose the operational condition of the machine based on measuring the level of oxidation in the oil.
1.3Acquisition of FT-IR spectral data for measuring oxidation in in-service oil and lubricant samples is described in Practice . In this test method, measurement and data interpretation parameters for oxidation using both direct trend analysis and differential (spectral subtraction) trend analysis are presented.
1.4This test method is based on trending of spectral changes associated with oxidation of in-service petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants. Warnings or alarm limits can be set on the basis of a fixed minimum value for a single measurement or, alternatively, can be based on a rate of change of the response measured, see Ref 1.4.1For direct trend analysis, values are recorded directly from absorption spectra and reported in units of absorbance per 0.1mm pathlength.
1.4.2For differential trend analysis, values are recorded from the differential spectra (spectrum obtained by subtraction of the absorption spectrum of the reference oil from that of the in-service oil) and reported in units of 100*absorbance per 0.1mm pathlength (or equivalently absorbance units per centimetre).
1.4.3In either case, maintenance action limits should be determined through statistical analysis, history of the same or similar equipment, round robin tests, or other methods in conjunction with the correlation of oxidation changes to equipment performance.
Note 1:It is not the intent of this test method to establish or recommend normal, cautionary, warning, or alert limits for any machinery. Such limits should be established in conjunction with advice and guidance from the machinery manufacturer and maintenance group.
1.5This test method is for petroleum and hydrocarbon based lubricants and is not applicable for ester based oils, including polyol esters or phosphate esters.
1.6The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.6.1ExceptionThe unit for wave numbers is cm1.
1.7This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.8This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
|2. Referenced Documents|
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